Efficiency Standards and Benchmarks

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In this article, in addition to the description of the current status of various policies and the results of their implementation, the differences between Taiwan's Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) requirements and those of the U.S. and Japan are also analyzed and presented, and they can be used as an important source for reviewing and improving Taiwan's future product benchmarks and their corresponding implementation schedules.
Table 1 Taiwan's energy efficiency management systems
Name of system Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) Energy Efficiency Rating Labeling Energy Label program
Type Mandatory Mandatory Voluntary
Main objectives and functions Prohibition of the importation or sale of products in Taiwan with low energy efficiency or high energy requirements To provide consumers with information such as power consumption and energy efficiency ratings for products to facilitate their selection of suitable products To provide guidance to the industry in the development and manufacturing of products with high energy efficiency, and to encourage consumers to give preference to products with high energy efficiency via easy-to-recognize labeling patterns.
Current means of implementation in Taiwan The MEPS benchmarks formulated by the Bureau of Energy are incorporated into the Commodity Inspection Act by the Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection (BSMI), MOEA, which is responsible for enforcing MEPS control on behalf of the Bureau of Energy. Energy consumption or energy efficiency information of products is required to be included in the labeling, as specified by the Chinese National Standards (CNS) of Taiwan. Currently these requirements have been incorporated into the Commodity Inspection Act and are enforced by the BSMI. The benchmarks for the Energy Labels are about 1.1 to 1.5 times the values specified in CNS or MEPS. Alternatively, they can be in the upper 20th to 30th percentile of high energy-efficiency products in the same product category. Manufacturers are encouraged to apply for certification voluntarily.
Announcement of implementation in Taiwan
Control item
Mandatory control has been implemented on 27 product categories Control has been implemented on 16 product categories 51 product categories are currently available for certification via voluntary application by manufacturers
Product characteristics or principles for formulating/revising standards The new standards are revised based on the principle of eliminating products in the lower 15th to 30th percentile in terms of energy efficiency Product energy efficiency ratings are determined based on the energy efficiency distribution of commercially available products, in coordination with the formulation/revision of MEPS Formulation/revision of the benchmarks are carried out by adopting the upper 20th to 30th percentile, in terms of the energy efficiency of products available on the market at the time
Logo Only standards have been developed
No logo available
Energy Efficiency Rating Labeling Energy Label program
1. Taiwan's Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS)
At present, Taiwan has announced the MEPS requirements for 25 product categories. Refer to table 2 below for the detailed list of products, with automobiles and motorcycles excluded. 21 of the 25 product categories (window-type air conditioners and box air conditioners, refrigerators/freezers, self-ballasted fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps, single-phase induction motors, three-phase induction motors, fluorescent lamps, fluorescent light ballasts, dehumidifiers, LED lamps, Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters, Electric Hot Water Pots, Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers, Chilled-Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers, Chilled-Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines, Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines, Water Dispenser supplied by packaged drinking water, Gas Stoves, Instantaneous Gas Water Heaters, Electric Rice Cookers, Air compressors) have been incorporated into the list of items for inspection by the BSMI. However, although low-voltage single-phase induction motors and low-voltage three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors are included in the list of items for inspection, due to the lack of performance testing laboratories for certain motor products and the fact that the majority of these products are subordinate to other imported equipment and systems, control at the border is difficult to enforce. Therefore, currently energy efficiency is not enforced at customs and when BSMI conducts the certification of products within specific series or families of product lines, safety is the main consideration and MEPS control remains excluded from the certification process. In addition, the following three categories of products are not yet included in the list of items for inspection and control: incandescent light bulbs, air conditioning system chillers, and boilers.
Table 2. List of product categories under MEPS control requirements
Category MEPS implementation timeframe Electrical appliance category
Refrigerator/freezer energy factor numerical standards (Phase I)
Refrigerator/freezer energy factor numerical standards (Phase II)
Refrigerator/freezer energy factor numerical benchmark
Refrigerator/freezer energy factor numerical benchmark
Fluorescent lamp energy efficiency standards
Fluorescent lamp energy efficiency benchmark
Window/box-type air conditioner energy efficiency ratio standard comparison table
Low-voltage single-phase inductive motor energy efficiency ratio standards
Low-voltage three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor energy efficiency standards
Low-voltage three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor energy efficiency benchmark (IE2)
Low-voltage three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor energy efficiency benchmark (IE3)
Air conditioning system chiller energy efficiency standards (Phase I)
Air conditioning system chiller energy efficiency standards (Phase II)
Boiler efficiency standards
Fluorescent light ballast luminous efficacy factor benchmark
Compact fluorescent lamp energy efficiency benchmark
self-ballasted fluorescent lamps
Ductless air conditioner energy efficiency ratio benchmark (Phase I)
Ductless air conditioner energy efficiency ratio benchmark (CSPF)
Dehumidifier efficiency standards
Dehumidifier efficiency benchmark
Incandescent light bulb energy consumption efficiency standards
Lighting 2014/07/01 LED lamps
Residential/Commercial 2015/01/01 Electric Hot Water Pots
Residential/Commercial 2015/10/01 Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters
Residential/Commercial 2016/12/01 Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers
Residential/Commercial 2016/12/01 Chilled-Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers
Residential/Commercial 2018/01/01 Chilled-Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines
Residential/Commercial 2018/01/01 Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines
Residential/Commercial 2020/01/01 Water Dispenser supplied by packaged drinking water
Residential/Commercial 2020/01/01 Electric Rice Cookers
Industrial 2021/01/01 Air compressors
2. Taiwan's voluntary Energy Labeling system
(1)   Course and content of the program
In order to further emphasize the importance of the efficiency of energy equipment and appliances and to fully implement the recommendations of the National Energy Conference, the Bureau of Energy, MOEA official launched the Energy Label certification mechanism in 2001. It establishes a verification labeling system for domestic energy-saving products, provides guidance to the industry in the manufacturing of products with high energy efficiency, and encourages consumers to purchase energy-saving products. The product categories covered under this system range from products that consume large amounts of energy to home appliances with high market penetration, and they have gradually expanded to transportation, gas-burning devices, office equipment and industrial products. As of March 2019, a total of 51 product categories were eligible for certification through applications by manufacturers. Refer to Table 3 for the product categories available for certification each year since the program was launched. Refer to Table 4 for the product categories with enhanced energy efficiency standards and the corresponding percentages, as specified by the Energy Label, in response to recent technological advances.
Table 3 Product categories available for certification over the years in Taiwan's Energy Label program
Year Product category
Air conditioners, refrigerators/freezers, dehumidifiers, dryers
TV sets, washing machines, domestic electric fans, fluorescent lamps (> 32 W)
Fluorescent lamps (< 32W), hair dryers, hand dryers
Warm/hot water dispensers, cold/warm/hot water dispensers
Cold/warm/hot drinking water supply, automobiles (passenger cars, small vans), motorcycles, self-ballasted fluorescent lamps
TFT LCD monitors, gas stoves, instant gas burning water heaters for domestic use, electric rice cookers
Electric pots, exit lights and emergency direction lights, DVD players/recorders
Electric storage tank water heaters, warm/hot drinking water supply, indoor lighting fixtures, audio systems
Compact fluorescent lamps
Printers, air cleaners, roadway lighting fittings for traffic route, Bathroom ventilation fans, wall-mounted ventilation fans (announced)
2012 Laptops, desktop computers (announcement procedure being carried out), Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater, Range Hoods
2013 Microwave Ovens, Axial flow Fans, Centrifugal fan, Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps, Electric Ovens, Electric Storage Tank Boiling Water Heaters, LED Lamps
2015 LED planar lamp, VFI UPS
2016 High bay Luminaire
2017 Downlights and Recessed luminaires, Office and Business Area Luminaire, Indoor parking lot smart lighting fixtures
Table 4 Energy Label product categories with improved energy efficiency standards and the corresponding extent of improvement
Year Product categories with energy efficiency under review Efficiency improvement %
2008 Warm/hot drinking water supply 36 %
Automobiles 15 %
Motorcycles 36 %
2009 self-ballasted fluorescent lamps 16 %
Air conditioners 3% - 13%
Displays (for computers and televisions) Standby power consumption reduced by 1.5W - 2W
Television sets Standby power consumption reduced by 1.5W - 2W
Electric rice cookers 5 %
Washing machines 10 - 30%
2010 Warm/hot water dispensers 15 %
Refrigerators/freezers 14 %
Dehumidifiers 20 %
2011 Domestic electric fans 50 - 100%
Electric pots 10 %
2012 Displays Standby power consumption reduced by 0.5W, Power on mode reduced 50%
Hair Dryers 10%
2013 Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers 20%
Chilled-Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers 20%
Exit Lights and Emergency Direction Lights 40%~76%
Indoor Light Fixtures 6%~30%
2014 Fluorescence Lamps With CNS 691 compliant test ballast:0~4lm/W
With CNS 13755 certified
electronic ballast:4~8lm/W
Televisions 15%
Displays 30%
2015 Electric Fans 20%~100%
Copy machines 30%~50%
Printers 20%~50%
2016 Non-Ducted Air Conditioners 14%~47%
Motorcycles 9.3%
2017 Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters 13%
Dehumidifiers 33%~46%
Refrigerators 27%~35%
Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers 15%
Passenger Cars 20%~25%
Luminaires for road and street lighting 11%~79%
Fluorescence Lamps 5%
2018 Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines 19%~35%
Chilled-Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines 7%~34%
Televisions 23%
2019 Electric Cookers 4%
(2)   Outcomes of the Energy Labeling program
As of March 18, 2019, there were 301 manufacturers with 6,649 products effectively certified with the Energy Label. The number of labels employed has broken the 241 million mark. The results of the Energy Labeling program over the past few years are shown in Table 5 below.
Table 5 Outcomes of the Energy Labeling program in recent years
Industry contribution Participation from the general public Energy-saving policy benefits
Cumulative no. of manufacturers
and no. of product models
Cumulative no. of visits to the Energy Labeling website Additional amount of energy saved annually
30 manufacturers - 337 models
10,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
42 manufacturers - 475 models
9,700 kiloliters of oil equivalent
81 manufacturers - 975 models
37,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
106 manufacturers - 1,353 models
1.22 million
45,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
166 manufacturers - 2,590 models
3.95 million
82,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
233 manufacturers - 3,622 models
9.35 million
91,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
287 manufacturers - 4,646 models
15.2 million
145,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
321 manufacturers - 5,340models
21.6 million
144,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
376 manufacturers - 6,363 models
32.4 million
125,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
369 manufacturers - 7,674 models
42 million
150,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
334 manufacturers - 7,106 models
50 million
156,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
313 manufacturers - 7,012 models
60.3 million
183,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
321 manufacturers - 7,016 models
73.6 million
166,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
305 manufacturers - 7,003 models
83.4 million
170,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
290 manufacturers - 6,700 models
94.9 million
176,000 kiloliters of oil equivalent
(3)   Taiwan's mandatory energy efficiency rating labeling
a. Course and content of the program: In order to provide stronger support to the government's policies on energy conservation and carbon reduction, the augmented and amended Energy Management Act was promulgated on July 8, 2009. Articles 14 and 15 of the Act authorize the use of energy efficiency rating and labeling for energy-consuming equipment and appliances as well as automobiles and motorcycles and other related measures. On July 1, 2010, the energy efficiency rating labeling for air conditioners, refrigerators, automobiles, and motorcycles came into effect in Taiwan. This provides consumers with useful information when they purchase these products so as to facilitate the market penetration of products with improved energy efficiency. In 2011, dehumidifiers and energy-saving lights were added to the list in March and July, respectively. Product categories to which the energy efficiency rating labeling system applies and the corresponding implementation schedules are shown in Table 6 below.
Table 6 Product categories to which the energy efficiency rating labeling system applies and the corresponding implementation schedules
Product category Time of implementation
Window (wall-type) air conditioner energy efficiency ratio standards
Box-type air-conditioner energy efficiency ratio standards
Refrigerator/freezer energy factor numerical benchmarks
Automobiles (cars and motorcycles)
self-ballasted fluorescent lamps
Instantaneous Gas Burning Water Heaters
Gas burning cooking appliances
Electric Hot Water Pots
Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters
Non-Ducted Air Conditioners (revised)
Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers
Chilled-Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers
Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines
Chilled-Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines
Dehumidifiers (revised)
Refrigerators (revised)
Electric Rice Cookers
Air compressors
b. Outcomes of energy efficiency rating labeling: As of the end of March, 2019, twelve categories of products that have successfully received approval for registration with the energy efficiency rating labeling system include: 7,519 Non-Ducted Air Conditioners models, 807 refrigerator models, 321 dehumidifier models, 2,080 self-ballasted fluorescent lamp models, 7,569 Gas burning cooking appliances  models, 5,337 Instantaneous Gas Burning Water Heaters models, 2,286 Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters models, 180 Electric Hot Water Pots models, 156 Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers models, 16 Chilled-Warm-Hot Drinking Water Dispensers models, 374 Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines models, and 379 Chilled-Warm-Hot Water Fountain Machines models.

Update: 2024-01-12
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